The Cosmic Dark Ages


https://www.expressvpn.com/spacetime

We live in the stelliferous era. Somewhere between 10 and 1000 billion trillion stars fill the observable universe with light. But there was a time before the first star ignited. A time we call the cosmic dark ages.

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Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Havley
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

In astronomy we study things that are very far away. It’s a powerful challenge because even the brightest objects are almost impossibly faint when you view them from the other side of the universe. But there’s an up side. If the light from some space object took billions of years to get to us then we see that object as it was billions of years ago. In this way we can peer back in time and literally see the past in motion. In fact we’re able to see some of the first stars and galaxies to ever form. But if we look beyond, both in distance and in time, there is … nothing. Darkness. For the hundred million years or so between the formation of the first atom and the formation of the first star there were no light sources in the universe. These were the cosmic dark ages. It’s a period of cosmic history rarely discussed because it’s hellishly difficult to observe. Fortunately scientists are devilishly clever. So what do we know about the time before stars?

Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters!

Big Bang Supporters:

Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar Supporters:

Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova Supporters:

Antoine Brugier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
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Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
DFaulk
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Jonathan Nesfeder
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي" />
To Learn more about ExpressVPN, visit: https://www.expressvpn.com/spacetime

We live in the stelliferous era. Somewhere between 10 and 1000 billion trillion stars fill the observable universe with light. But there was a time before the first star ignited. A time we call the cosmic dark ages.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Havley
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

In astronomy we study things that are very far away. It’s a powerful challenge because even the brightest objects are almost impossibly faint when you view them from the other side of the universe. But there’s an up side. If the light from some space object took billions of years to get to us then we see that object as it was billions of years ago. In this way we can peer back in time and literally see the past in motion. In fact we’re able to see some of the first stars and galaxies to ever form. But if we look beyond, both in distance and in time, there is … nothing. Darkness. For the hundred million years or so between the formation of the first atom and the formation of the first star there were no light sources in the universe. These were the cosmic dark ages. It’s a period of cosmic history rarely discussed because it’s hellishly difficult to observe. Fortunately scientists are devilishly clever. So what do we know about the time before stars?

Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters!

Big Bang Supporters:

Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar Supporters:

Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova Supporters:

Antoine Brugier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
DFaulk
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Jonathan Nesfeder
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography


https://www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500!

Quantum computing is cool, but you know what would be extra awesome - a quantum internet. In fact if we want the first we’ll need the latter. And the first step to the quantum internet is quantum cryptography.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
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Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#cryptography #quantumcomputing #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Wille
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

Quantum theory may seem like an obscure subject of questionable relevance to the average person. But in fact much of our technological world depends on our understanding of the quantum properties of the subatomic universe. And soon, perhaps very soon, we’ll be interacting with the weirdness of quantum mechanics even more directly – with the coming of quantum computing and the quantum internet. Quantum computing is a topic that’s that has been well covered, so we’re going to be talking about the quantum internet. Specifically quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution – the foundations of the prospective quantum internet. We may come back to quantum computer in detail – but for now let me show you why their advent will demand a quantum internet.

Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters!

Big Bang Supporters:

Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar Supporters:

Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova Supporters:

Antoine Brugier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي" />
Try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500!

Quantum computing is cool, but you know what would be extra awesome - a quantum internet. In fact if we want the first we’ll need the latter. And the first step to the quantum internet is quantum cryptography.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#cryptography #quantumcomputing #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Wille
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

Quantum theory may seem like an obscure subject of questionable relevance to the average person. But in fact much of our technological world depends on our understanding of the quantum properties of the subatomic universe. And soon, perhaps very soon, we’ll be interacting with the weirdness of quantum mechanics even more directly – with the coming of quantum computing and the quantum internet. Quantum computing is a topic that’s that has been well covered, so we’re going to be talking about the quantum internet. Specifically quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution – the foundations of the prospective quantum internet. We may come back to quantum computer in detail – but for now let me show you why their advent will demand a quantum internet.

Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters!

Big Bang Supporters:

Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar Supporters:

Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova Supporters:

Antoine Brugier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole


https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

How do you take a picture of a black hole and what can we learn from it? Our first ever actual bona fide photo of a black hole, made by the Event Horizon Telescope and revealed to the world in a press conference on April 10th. Since then it’s got plenty of coverage, because … I mean look at it. It’s a freaking black hole. It’s black, it’s holey, it’s everything we hoped it would be. Now that the giddiness has subsided and I personally have stopped spending hours on end staring at a black spot, we can take a breath and actually look at the real science here and discuss exactly how a picture like this could be taken and what we can learn from it.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#Blackhole #astrophysics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Murilo Ceasar Lopes
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

So, how do you take a picture of a black hole? The beast in question is the supermassive black hole in the center of this – the M87 elliptical galaxy. It has an estimated mass of several billion times that of the Sun, which gives it an event horizon larger than the solar system. M87 is 53 million light years away, so resolving that black hole is equivalent to resolving a grain of stand on the beach in LA – if you’re standing in New York. By comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope would struggle to see a large watermelon over that distance.

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar:
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
Antoine Bruguier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي" />
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

How do you take a picture of a black hole and what can we learn from it? Our first ever actual bona fide photo of a black hole, made by the Event Horizon Telescope and revealed to the world in a press conference on April 10th. Since then it’s got plenty of coverage, because … I mean look at it. It’s a freaking black hole. It’s black, it’s holey, it’s everything we hoped it would be. Now that the giddiness has subsided and I personally have stopped spending hours on end staring at a black spot, we can take a breath and actually look at the real science here and discuss exactly how a picture like this could be taken and what we can learn from it.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Black Hole Refresher
https://youtu.be/vNaEBbFbvcY

#Blackhole #astrophysics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Murilo Ceasar Lopes
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

So, how do you take a picture of a black hole? The beast in question is the supermassive black hole in the center of this – the M87 elliptical galaxy. It has an estimated mass of several billion times that of the Sun, which gives it an event horizon larger than the solar system. M87 is 53 million light years away, so resolving that black hole is equivalent to resolving a grain of stand on the beach in LA – if you’re standing in New York. By comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope would struggle to see a large watermelon over that distance.

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar:
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
Antoine Bruguier
Chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?


https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

We’ve been failing to detect dark matter for decades. Finally, the latest failure to detect dark matter may have actually proved its existence. One of these is true: either most of the matter in the universe is invisible and formed of something not explained by modern particle physics OR our understanding of gravity is completely broken. The debate over which is true has raged for decades, but may finally have been resolved in an unlikely way: the proof that dark matter exists, and really is an exotic, unknown substance, may have come from the discovery of two galaxies that appear to have no dark matter at all. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at the papers that reveal this discovery:

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle?
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR

#darkmatter #astrophysics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Kurtis Ross
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

The effect of dark matter was first noticed in 1933, when the legendary Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noticed that the galaxies in the Coma cluster were moving too quickly to remain gravitationally bound within that cluster. He guessed the presence of “dunkle m aterie” – a dark matter invisible to his telescope but whose gravitational effect held the cluster together. As with many of Zwicky’s predictions – like the existence of neutron stars and gravitational lensing - this wasn’t taken seriously until decades later. The hunt for dark matter began in earnest after the early 70s when Vera Ruben, discovered that the rotation rates of spiral galaxies were too fast given the mass of their visible stars alone. They should throw themselves to pieces spinning that quickly – that is, unless, a gravitational force of unseen origin was holding them together.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar:
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
Antoine Bruguier
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andrewas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman

Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي" />
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

We’ve been failing to detect dark matter for decades. Finally, the latest failure to detect dark matter may have actually proved its existence. One of these is true: either most of the matter in the universe is invisible and formed of something not explained by modern particle physics OR our understanding of gravity is completely broken. The debate over which is true has raged for decades, but may finally have been resolved in an unlikely way: the proof that dark matter exists, and really is an exotic, unknown substance, may have come from the discovery of two galaxies that appear to have no dark matter at all. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at the papers that reveal this discovery:

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle?
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR

#darkmatter #astrophysics #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Kurtis Ross
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

The effect of dark matter was first noticed in 1933, when the legendary Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noticed that the galaxies in the Coma cluster were moving too quickly to remain gravitationally bound within that cluster. He guessed the presence of “dunkle m aterie” – a dark matter invisible to his telescope but whose gravitational effect held the cluster together. As with many of Zwicky’s predictions – like the existence of neutron stars and gravitational lensing - this wasn’t taken seriously until decades later. The hunt for dark matter began in earnest after the early 70s when Vera Ruben, discovered that the rotation rates of spiral galaxies were too fast given the mass of their visible stars alone. They should throw themselves to pieces spinning that quickly – that is, unless, a gravitational force of unseen origin was holding them together.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar:
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
Antoine Bruguier
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Moyneux
Alexander Lazerev
Alexey Eromenko
Andrewas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Joseph Dillman

Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

The Holographic Universe Explained


https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle?
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR

#holographicuniverse #holographicprinciple #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The holographic principle emerged from many subtle clues – clues discovered over decades of theoretical exploration of the universe. Over the past several months on Space Time, we’ve seen those close clues, and we’ve built a the foundations needed to glimpse the true meaning of the holographic principle. We’ve moved from quantum field theory to black hole thermodynamics to string theory. We’ve made a background playlist if you want to start from scratch, and I especially recommend catching last week’s episode. But this is tough material, so let’s do a review.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
We live in a universe with 3 dimensions of space and one of time. Up, down, left, right, forward, back, past, future. 3+1 dimensions. Or so our primitive Pleistocene-evolved brains find it useful to believe. And we cling to this intuition, even as physics shows us that this view of reality may be only a very narrow perception. One of the most startling possibilities is that our 3+1 dimensional universe may better described as resulting from a spacetime one dimension lower – like a hologram projected from a surface infinitely far away.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle?
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR

#holographicuniverse #holographicprinciple #spacetime

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The holographic principle emerged from many subtle clues – clues discovered over decades of theoretical exploration of the universe. Over the past several months on Space Time, we’ve seen those close clues, and we’ve built a the foundations needed to glimpse the true meaning of the holographic principle. We’ve moved from quantum field theory to black hole thermodynamics to string theory. We’ve made a background playlist if you want to start from scratch, and I especially recommend catching last week’s episode. But this is tough material, so let’s do a review.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

The Edge of an Infinite Universe


https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

#infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” – that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch – meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains.

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

#infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” – that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch – meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?


https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

#bigrip #endoftheuniverse #spacetime

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The universe is expanding, and that expansion is accelerating. We don’t know what’s causing that acceleration, but that hasn’t stopped us from giving it a name. We call this unknown influence dark energy. The observed acceleration is, for the most part, nicely described with a constant density of dark energy – the same amount of this stuff in every block of space. Which means if you increase the volume you increase the overall amount of dark energy – hence accelerating expansion. Mathematically we describe a constant energy density with the cosmological constant in the equations of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But what if dark energy is NOT constant? What if the energy density in each patch of space increases over time? In that case, the acceleration itself could be … accelerating. That would be bad.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

And a round of applause to Andreas Nautsch." />
Of all the unlikely ends of the universe, the Big Rip has to be the most spectacular. Galaxies ripped to shreds, dogs and cat first living together, then tragically separated by the infinitely accelerating expansion of space on subatomic scales. Good thing it's not going to happen. Or is it?

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

#bigrip #endoftheuniverse #spacetime

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The universe is expanding, and that expansion is accelerating. We don’t know what’s causing that acceleration, but that hasn’t stopped us from giving it a name. We call this unknown influence dark energy. The observed acceleration is, for the most part, nicely described with a constant density of dark energy – the same amount of this stuff in every block of space. Which means if you increase the volume you increase the overall amount of dark energy – hence accelerating expansion. Mathematically we describe a constant energy density with the cosmological constant in the equations of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But what if dark energy is NOT constant? What if the energy density in each patch of space increases over time? In that case, the acceleration itself could be … accelerating. That would be bad.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

And a round of applause to Andreas Nautsch.

Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?


http://ow.ly/wvWC30o0QYV

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip.

On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at:
Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts"
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0657-z

#darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime

More about The Great Courses Plus:
The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
Learn More about The Great Courses Plus: http://ow.ly/wvWC30o0QYV

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip.

On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at:
Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts"
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0657-z

#darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime

More about The Great Courses Plus:
The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.

Learn More About Dark Energy Here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Will You Travel to Space?


http://youtube.com/soundfieldpbs

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Thanks to Matthias Rüby for on-site camera work.
https://www.instagram.com/matthiasrueby/

The private space-race has been on for a while now. The attention has been on Space-X and Blue Origin with their reusable rockets. But there’s one private space program that’s been doing things a little differently. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic isn’t building rockets at all – it’s building spaceships. And I got to sit down and talk to him about it.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
On-site filming by Matthias Rüby
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Amid the loud rivalry of between Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, amid the extravagance of self-landing rockets and … other displays, Virgin Galactic achieved something no other private space company ever has – in 2014 it became the first to put an actual person in space on board its SpaceShipOne – turning its pilot into the world’s first private astronaut. And then, on February 22nd, the VSS Unity, reached space in a sub-orbital flight carrying the first-ever passenger-astronaut on a private spacecraft.



Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
Check out Sound Field: http://youtube.com/soundfieldpbs

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Thanks to Matthias Rüby for on-site camera work.
https://www.instagram.com/matthiasrueby/

The private space-race has been on for a while now. The attention has been on Space-X and Blue Origin with their reusable rockets. But there’s one private space program that’s been doing things a little differently. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic isn’t building rockets at all – it’s building spaceships. And I got to sit down and talk to him about it.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
On-site filming by Matthias Rüby
Graphics by Aaron Halevy
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Amid the loud rivalry of between Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, amid the extravagance of self-landing rockets and … other displays, Virgin Galactic achieved something no other private space company ever has – in 2014 it became the first to put an actual person in space on board its SpaceShipOne – turning its pilot into the world’s first private astronaut. And then, on February 22nd, the VSS Unity, reached space in a sub-orbital flight carrying the first-ever passenger-astronaut on a private spacecraft.



Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines


https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

See Matt in NYC at Caveat March 7th at 9pm:
https://www.caveat.nyc/event/astronaut-training-a-space-camp-game-show-for-lunatics-3-7-2019

Bad ideas come and go in physics. But there’s one bit of nonsense that is perhaps more persistent than all others: the perpetual motion machine. No working perpetual motion machine has ever been experiment verified. All break the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, we classify based on WHICH law of thermodynamics they break. We have perpetual motion machines of the first kind - they violate energy conservation - they pump more energy out than they need to keep running. This includes most of the historical devices. Then there are machines of the second kind - they’re a bit more subtle in their wrongness because break the second law of thermodynamics - extracting energy by reversing entropy. Many modern “free-energy” devices fall into this category. Now the best modern designs are by you - answers to our recent challenge question, which we’ll get to at the end. But first let’s take a look at examples of what other people came up with - this’ll be a fun little journey through some pretty terrible science.

Challenge Winners Please Email pbsspacetime@gmail.com, with your choice of product from the Merch Store (https://pbsspacetime.com/ )

Connor Grey
Creepy Magician
Alex Taylor
Adrien Romeo
Epsilon Centauri
Enoae Andrei


Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Kurt Ross
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Designing a perpetual motion machine has a very long history and became quite the craze from the middle ages through the renaissance. The first well-documented design for a perpetual motion machine was from the 12th century. Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned. Other types of over-balance wheels followed through to the Renaissance and worked on the same principle. There were also designs that employed the magical-seeming lodestones – magnets. For example, this ramp in which a ball is pulled to the top by a magnet before falling through a hole and rolling to the bottom again. Then there are the self-pumping waterwheels or self-blowing windmills.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

See Matt in NYC at Caveat March 7th at 9pm:
https://www.caveat.nyc/event/astronaut-training-a-space-camp-game-show-for-lunatics-3-7-2019

Bad ideas come and go in physics. But there’s one bit of nonsense that is perhaps more persistent than all others: the perpetual motion machine. No working perpetual motion machine has ever been experiment verified. All break the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, we classify based on WHICH law of thermodynamics they break. We have perpetual motion machines of the first kind - they violate energy conservation - they pump more energy out than they need to keep running. This includes most of the historical devices. Then there are machines of the second kind - they’re a bit more subtle in their wrongness because break the second law of thermodynamics - extracting energy by reversing entropy. Many modern “free-energy” devices fall into this category. Now the best modern designs are by you - answers to our recent challenge question, which we’ll get to at the end. But first let’s take a look at examples of what other people came up with - this’ll be a fun little journey through some pretty terrible science.

Challenge Winners Please Email pbsspacetime@gmail.com, with your choice of product from the Merch Store (https://pbsspacetime.com/ )

Connor Grey
Creepy Magician
Alex Taylor
Adrien Romeo
Epsilon Centauri
Enoae Andrei


Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx...

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Kurt Ross
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Designing a perpetual motion machine has a very long history and became quite the craze from the middle ages through the renaissance. The first well-documented design for a perpetual motion machine was from the 12th century. Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned. Other types of over-balance wheels followed through to the Renaissance and worked on the same principle. There were also designs that employed the magical-seeming lodestones – magnets. For example, this ramp in which a ball is pulled to the top by a magnet before falling through a hole and rolling to the bottom again. Then there are the self-pumping waterwheels or self-blowing windmills.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background


https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

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Hook up an old antenna to your TV and scan between channels. The static buzz you hear is mostly due to the ambient radio produced by our noisy pre-galactic civilization. But around one percent of that buzz is something very different – it’s the cosmic microwave background radiation – the remnant of the heat-glow released when the hot, dense early universe became transparent for the first time. It sound likes random static, but that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information. It holds the secrets of the universe’s fiery beginning,

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
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Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUxoeooZk

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

It’s not surprising that scientists have spent half a century and built multiple satellites to unlock the mysteries of the cosmic microwave background. We’ve delved into its nature before – from its formation 380,000 years after the Big Bang, to its 1964 discovery by Penzias and Wilson with the Holmdel Horn Antenna, to its increasingly accurate mapping across the sky with ever-better satellites. It all culminated in this – the Planck satellite’s map of the CMB.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/spacetime

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Hook up an old antenna to your TV and scan between channels. The static buzz you hear is mostly due to the ambient radio produced by our noisy pre-galactic civilization. But around one percent of that buzz is something very different – it’s the cosmic microwave background radiation – the remnant of the heat-glow released when the hot, dense early universe became transparent for the first time. It sound likes random static, but that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information. It holds the secrets of the universe’s fiery beginning,

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUxoeooZk

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

It’s not surprising that scientists have spent half a century and built multiple satellites to unlock the mysteries of the cosmic microwave background. We’ve delved into its nature before – from its formation 380,000 years after the Big Bang, to its 1964 discovery by Penzias and Wilson with the Holmdel Horn Antenna, to its increasingly accurate mapping across the sky with ever-better satellites. It all culminated in this – the Planck satellite’s map of the CMB.


Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time


http://g.co/ScienceJournal

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com
With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Invisible to the naked eye, our night sky is scattered with the 100s of billions of galaxies the fill the known universe. Like the stars, these galaxies form constellations – hidden patterns that echo the reverberations of matter and light in an epoch long before galaxies ever formed. These are the baryon acoustic oscillations, and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
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Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The field of cosmology – the study of the universe on its largest scales – was once the least precise in all of astrophysics. The impossibly vast distances made accurate measurements near impossible. But as our telescopes and our techniques improved over the past few decades, things are now different. We live in the era of precision cosmology, in which we know to stunning detail the properties that govern the very birth, evolution, and end of our universe. We talked about one of those properties in a recent episode – the Hubble constant – and about a growing conflict in its measured value which hints at strange new physics. Today we’ll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: the baryon acoustic oscillations. They the fossils of the first sound waves in the universe, imprinted in the distribution of galaxies on the sky. And in these patterns we can read the expansion history of the universe.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at http://g.co/ScienceJournal

Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com
With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Invisible to the naked eye, our night sky is scattered with the 100s of billions of galaxies the fill the known universe. Like the stars, these galaxies form constellations – hidden patterns that echo the reverberations of matter and light in an epoch long before galaxies ever formed. These are the baryon acoustic oscillations, and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The field of cosmology – the study of the universe on its largest scales – was once the least precise in all of astrophysics. The impossibly vast distances made accurate measurements near impossible. But as our telescopes and our techniques improved over the past few decades, things are now different. We live in the era of precision cosmology, in which we know to stunning detail the properties that govern the very birth, evolution, and end of our universe. We talked about one of those properties in a recent episode – the Hubble constant – and about a growing conflict in its measured value which hints at strange new physics. Today we’ll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: the baryon acoustic oscillations. They the fossils of the first sound waves in the universe, imprinted in the distribution of galaxies on the sky. And in these patterns we can read the expansion history of the universe.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang:
Anton Lifshits
coolascats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Tim Davis

Quasar:
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?


https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com
With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Challenge question: if 1kg of apples is $5 and 2kg is $10, how much is -1kg of apples? The answer? Priceless. Because you could use negative-mass apples to build warp drives, travel in time, and construct a perpetual motion machine. In fact that last one will be today’s actual challenge question.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Exotic matter – matter with negative mass - has long been the pipedream of science fiction writers, futurists, and certain rather. . . optimistic researchers. It’s the key to faster than light travel because it’s the only stuff that can curve space in the right way to hold open wormholes and construct warp fields. And if you can travel faster than light you can also travel backwards in time. We’ve been over those already. And we also recently covered a very new use for negative mass: as “dark fluid”, a proposed explanation for both dark matter and dark energy. That episode really got me thinking about the subtleties of negative mass and how it should really behave gravitationally. Turns out it’s complicated, and to answer it we really have to question the very definition of mass.



Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang


Anton Lifshits
CoolAsCats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
TIm Davis


Quasar


James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime

Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com
With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Challenge question: if 1kg of apples is $5 and 2kg is $10, how much is -1kg of apples? The answer? Priceless. Because you could use negative-mass apples to build warp drives, travel in time, and construct a perpetual motion machine. In fact that last one will be today’s actual challenge question.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Exotic matter – matter with negative mass - has long been the pipedream of science fiction writers, futurists, and certain rather. . . optimistic researchers. It’s the key to faster than light travel because it’s the only stuff that can curve space in the right way to hold open wormholes and construct warp fields. And if you can travel faster than light you can also travel backwards in time. We’ve been over those already. And we also recently covered a very new use for negative mass: as “dark fluid”, a proposed explanation for both dark matter and dark energy. That episode really got me thinking about the subtleties of negative mass and how it should really behave gravitationally. Turns out it’s complicated, and to answer it we really have to question the very definition of mass.



Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang


Anton Lifshits
CoolAsCats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
TIm Davis


Quasar


James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

The Crisis in Cosmology


https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime


The search for a single number: the hubble constant, which is the rate of expansion of our universe, has consumed astronomers for generations. Finally, two powerful and independent methods have refined its measurement to unprecedented precision. The only problem is that they don’t agree. This calls into question some of our most basic assumptions about the universe.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the universe. He gave us our first incontrovertible proof that there are galaxies outside the Milky Way by measuring the distances to the spiral nebulae. They were many millions of light years from us –far outside the Milky Way and so must be galaxies in their own right. Combined with the Doppler-shift velocity measurements of Vesto Slipher, Hubble revealed that the galaxies are not only receding from us, but they are receding at a rate proportional to their distance.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang


Anton Lifshits
CoolAsCats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
TIm Davis


Quasar


Dean Fuqua
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي" />
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!
https://pbsspacetime.com/

Support Space Time on Patreon
https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime


The search for a single number: the hubble constant, which is the rate of expansion of our universe, has consumed astronomers for generations. Finally, two powerful and independent methods have refined its measurement to unprecedented precision. The only problem is that they don’t agree. This calls into question some of our most basic assumptions about the universe.

Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime
Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com
Comment on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime

Help translate our videos!
https://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs

Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the universe. He gave us our first incontrovertible proof that there are galaxies outside the Milky Way by measuring the distances to the spiral nebulae. They were many millions of light years from us –far outside the Milky Way and so must be galaxies in their own right. Combined with the Doppler-shift velocity measurements of Vesto Slipher, Hubble revealed that the galaxies are not only receding from us, but they are receding at a rate proportional to their distance.

Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

Big Bang


Anton Lifshits
CoolAsCats
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
TIm Davis


Quasar


Dean Fuqua
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Buruk Aregawi
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي
"