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Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?


by: PBS Space Time

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Life exists in our universe. There we go - one hopefully uncontroversial statement. Therefore our universe is capable of producing and supporting life. How am I going? Two for two? Let’s try for three: therefore there are countless universes. Hmmm. Did I break my streak?

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber

Our universe seems to operate according to a set of fundamental rules that we try to understand and model with the equations of our laws of physics. Those equations always include one or more fundamental constants - simple numbers that set the scale for the equation. We can’t determine the values of these constants from pure theory - we have to measure them in the real universe. These are things like the speed of light, the Planck constant, the masses of the elementary particles, and the constants defining the relative strengths of the fundamental forces - the so-called coupling constants.

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Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe


by: PBS Space Time

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Why does it appear, that humanity is the lone intelligence in the universe? The answer might be that planet Earth is more unique than we've previously assumed. The rare earth hypothesis posits exactly this - that a range of factors made Earth exceptionally unusual and uniquely able to produce intelligent life.

In upcoming episodes we’ll be exploring the anthropic principle and its two main versions - the strong and the weak anthropic principles. The strong anthropic principle tells us that the observed universe must be able to produce observers - including the contentious idea that this predicts the existence of universes beyond our own. But in today's episode we’re going to focus on the weak anthropic principle. It says that we must find ourselves in a part of the universe capable of supporting us. For example, in a planetary biosphere rather than floating in the void between the galaxies. This may seems tautological, but accounting for this observer selection bias is important to understanding why the universe looks the way it does from our perspective. And the weak anthropic principle is much more useful than that. When combined with the apparent absence of alien civilizations, it may tell us why intelligent life is incredibly rare in our universe.

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber

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Is Time Travel Impossible?


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Time travel stories are cool because both the past and future are somehow more interesting that the present and because everyone wants a redo. But so far it appears we’re doomed to live consumed by regret in the eternal, boring present. Time marches on, inexorably and only forward. Or so we thought until Einstein came along. His special and general theories of relativity changed the way we think about time forever, and believe it or not, their raw equations permit time travel. They even tell us how to do it. So let’s review the possibilities, and decide how possible they really are.

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
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Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
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Loop Quantum Gravity Explained


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It’s time we talked about loop quantum gravity. What exactly is it? What are the loops? And can it really defeat string theory in our quest for a Theory of Everything?

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Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber

The holy grail of physics is to connect our understanding of the tiny scales of atoms and subatomic particles with that of the vast scales of planets, galaxies, and the entire universe. To connect quantum physics with Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Our search for a theory of quantum gravity is a century old, and we’ve talked quite a bit about it already, including what’s probably the lead contender - string theory. But string theory isn’t the only game in town - or so some physicists believe. There may be another way to reconcile the physics of the tiny and the gigantic - another way to a theory of quantum gravity that avoids a lot of conceptual baggage like tiny wiggling strings made of coiled up extra dimensions. That other way would be loop quantum gravity, and today we’re going to learn exactly what it is.

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Black Hole Harmonics


by: PBS Space Time

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Black holes are crazy enough on their own – but crash two together and you end up with a roiling blob of inescapable space that vibrates like a beaten drum. And the rich harmonics of those vibrations, seen through gravitational waves, could hold the secrets to the nature of the fabric of spacetime itself. Today on space time journal club we’ll explore the papers that claim to have detected black hole harmonics. We’ll also give you the latest updates on the most recent – in some cases quite bizarre - LIGO detections.

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Graphics by Murilo Lopes
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
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When physicists talk about black holes they’re usually referring to highly theoretical objects – static, unchanging black holes viewed from “infinitely” far away. This makes everything clean and simple enough to attempt the already notoriously complex calculations of black hole physics. But real black holes are created in the violent deaths of massive stars, and there’s nothing clean about that. And we now know that black holes merge – and in the process produce gravitational radiation that we’ve only just managed to detect with the miraculous work of the LIGO and VIRGO gravitational wave observatories. In the instant after its merger, the new, joined black hole looks nothing like the idealized theoretical black hole.

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How Many Universes Are There?


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The universe is big, but it’s peanuts compared to the eternally inflating multiverse. But just how many universes are there? What are they like? And most importantly, what can they tell us about … aliens?

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Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber

Imagine it: the observable part of our universe is 93 billion light years across, and that’s just a small fraction of the stuff created in our Big Bang. But in the eternal inflation picture, ours is just one among uncountable bubble universes. Bubbles that are continuously appearing and growing within a vastly larger spacetime that itself expands at an exponentially accelerating rate. A greater inflationary spacetime whose expansion never ends. We looked at the bizarre idea of eternal inflation in recent episodes – but we stopped short of exploring the full implications of this proposition. Those implications are, frankly, completely nuts. Some may also be true.

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Is Pluto a Planet?


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You know what a planet is, right? A big round thing that orbits a star. Uh, not so fast. The surprisingly vicious debate over the planetary status of Pluto has given us a fascinating glimpse into what a scientific definition really is. And perhaps the word planet is too vague to be used as a scientific definition at all.

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Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd
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We love to classify things. Labels help us keep stuff organized in our heads. In science, categorization provides a fast and easy way to know the properties of a member of the group just by knowing what group it belongs to. Chemists group elements on the periodic table, those groups exhibit similar chemical behavior that reflect outer-shell electron number. Biologists group organisms by similar physical characteristics, and this taxonomy reflects genetic relationships. Astronomers are all about space taxonomy. We classify galaxies based on their shape, black holes based on how they feed, stars based on their colour and brightness, and planets by… well, by a set of criteria that has caused more tension and heartbreak than any made-up grouping scheme really should. Because a change in that scheme demoted Pluto from planet to not-planet. Today we’re going to settle whether this was reasonable, and whether we should keep the word “planet” at all.

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Could We Terraform Mars?


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Humanity’s future is glorious. As we master space travel, we’ll hop from one lifeless world to the next. Life will blossom in our path and the galaxy with shimmer with beautiful Earth-like orbs. Hmmm… maybe. This won’t sound so far fetched if we prove we can do it at least once. If we successfully terraform Mars.

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Written by Matt O'Dowd
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Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
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We already have the technology to bring humans safely to Mars and set up small settlements - or at least could do within a generation. But those settlements will need to be cocooned - shielded against the deadly cold, intense radiation, and the fatal lack of atmospheric pressure. Surely if we want to thrive on Mars – to make it into our second home – these settlers, or their descendants, will need to be able open the airlocks, shed their spacesuits, and step out onto a survivable surface. We’ll need to terraform Mars, as our first step in terraforming the galaxy.

Red Iris Mars habitat by James Telfer: http://bit.ly/JamesTelferRedIris

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سلطان الخليفي

Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?


by: PBS Space Time

https://www.pbsresearch.org/c/r/ST_YTvideo

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Earth’s magnetic field protects us from deadly space radiation. What if it were drastically weakened, as a precursor to flipping upside down? I mean, it has before … many, many times..

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

Special Thanks to Lathrop Lab at University of Maryland:
https://complex.umd.edu/

Check Out Lathrop Lab's YouTube Channel to learn more about their 3-meter experiment that models the Earth's core:
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-nUrQmFR3pFgEVwW0qAURA

Spaceship Earth has a literal deflector shield. A geomagnetic field. Lines of magnetic force, forged by currents in the planet’s molten core, erupt from the surface close to the north south geographic poles, connecting to each other to wreath the planet in a dipole field, like a gigantic bar magnet. Magnetic fields exert a force on moving charged particles, causing them to spiral around those force lines. That’s helpful, because Earth is constantly bombarded by very fast moving charged particles, especially coming from the Sun. Our magnetic field deflects the worst of these. Not all planets are so lucky. Mars, with its solid core, has no such shield – and so the red planet’s atmosphere was stripped away by the solar wind billions of years ago.


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سلطان الخليفي

How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!


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Do you want to major in Astrophysics? Are you thinking about becoming (or ever just wondered how one becomes) an Astrophysicists? Do you want to know Matt O’Dowd’s origin story? Then buckle up and enjoy the ride and try your astrophysics skill in calculating bubble universes to try to win some free Space Time Swag from the Merch Store.

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Written by Matt O'Dowd
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To Jump to Challenge Question:
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Paul Rose
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Taras Vozniuk
Tim Jones
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Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

What Happened Before the Big Bang?


by: PBS Space Time

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We actually have a pretty good idea of what might have happened before the Big Bang. That is, as long as we define the Big Bang as the extremely hot, dense, rapidly expanding universe that is described by Einstein’s equations. That picture of the universe is very solid down to about a trillionth of a second after the supposed beginning of time. We can make good guesses down to about 10^-30th of a second. But before that?

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

Check out the Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation Playlist to learn More
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPStj2ZuXug& ;amp;list=PLsPUh22kYmNCc3WCKb5yF136QSRf0xErm

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سلطان الخليفي

Exploring a HUGE Radio Telescope in VR 180


by: PBS Space Time

https://youtu.be/RrH9LwD1bx4

Hosted by Matt O’Dowd
Written by: Matt O’Dowd
Directed by: Eric Brown
Director of Photography: Eric Brouse
Sound: Brett Van Duesen
Editing: Brian Nils Johnson
Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

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What Caused the Big Bang?


by: PBS Space Time

https://pbsspacetime.com/

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Every astronomy textbook tells us that soon after the Big Bang, there was a period of exponentially accelerating expansion called cosmic inflation. In a tiny fraction of a second, inflationary expansion multiplied the size of the universe by a larger factor than in the following 13 and a half billion years of regular expansion. This story seems like a bit of a … stretch. Is there really any mechanism that could cause something like this to happen? What what we’re covering today – the real physics of cosmic inflation.

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer
Directed by Andrew Kornhaber
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

Dark Energy Playlist:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i

The Quantum Vacuum and Hawking Radiation Playlist
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvgZqGxF3eo& ;amp;list=PLsPUh22kYmNAHB1W2_Ka2F83sObdczwKr

Most cosmologists buy some variation of the inflation hypothesis. It seems to very neatly solve some of the biggest questions in cosmology. Those being: why is matter and energy so smoothly spread out across the entire observable universe? And why is the geometry of the universe so flat? Neither should be expected unless the universe expanded much more rapidly early on. We explored these problems in an earlier video – worth a look if you really want to get inflation. Another problem fixed by inflation is the absence of magnetic monopoles – strange particles predicted to have been produced in the early universe. We’ll come back to those another time.


Big Bang Supporters:

Anton Lifshits
David Nicklas
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet
Justin Lloyd
Morgan Hough

Quasar Supporters:

Mark Heising
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova Supporters:
Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Hank S
John Hofmann
John R. Slavik
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew
Matthew O'Connor
Syed Ansar

Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Adrien Hatch
Alexey Eromenko
Andreas Nautsch
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Behtala
DFaulk
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
James Flowers
James Quintero
John Funai
John Pollock
Jonah
Jonathan Nesfeder
Joseph Dillman
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nick Virtue
Paul Rose
Ryan Jones
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Jones
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
Yurii Konovaliuk
سلطان الخليفي

Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe | STELLAR


by: PBS Space Time

https://wehackthemoon.com.

One of the fundamental questions humanity has always asked is how big is our Universe? For much of human history, people believed that Planet Earth was the very center of the entire universe. And Earth is pretty big. But compared the rest of the universe, we are infinitesimally small.

The animation in this video the Digital Universe data collection curated by the American Museum of Natural History. The software is used to visualize these datasets is OpenSpace, which is developed through a collaboration between AMNH, Linköping University in Sweden, New York University, and the University of Utah. The software and datasets are open source and are free to download and explore. https://www.openspaceproject.com/

Credit: From the ESO Supernova to the end of the Universe at 00:52
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hy2cxmHuEAs
Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/M. Kornmesser/spaceengine.org

Credit: Cepheid Variable 4:06
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXJBrRmHPj8
NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser

I know, this video is a bit different from most Space Time videos. It's part of a PBS miniseries called Stellar, done in collaboration with Diana Cowern from @physicsgirl and Joe Hanson from @It'sOkayToBeSmart. Over six episodes we travel to telescopes, go inside space research centers, and chat with amazing scientists. Next up is Joe's episode where he explores where life might be outside our solar system.

Check out Joe’s episode here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoxGOL-Ow9w

Check out the other episodes in this series:

The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqCPn

Seeing a Black Hole with a Planet-Sized Telescope | STELLAR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUpKt

I Visited the First Gravitational Wave Detector! LIGO | STELLAR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtp71

How We’ll Find the Aliens in Our Solar System! | STELLAR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfqpYDVhXd8& ;amp;t=2s

Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There'll be lots of awesome space related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at https://www.pbs.org/summer-of-space/

#SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space

Hosted by Matt O’Dowd
Written by: Sophia Chen, Matt O’Dowd, Andrew Kornhaber, Eric Brown
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber & Eric Brown
Producer: Randa Eid
Director of Photography: Eric Brouse
Sound: Justin Pope & Brett Van Duesen
Production Assistant: Marifisia Bel
Editing: Pavel Ezrohi, Tom Levin, Rebbecca Senn
Graphics: Murilo Lopes
Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar
Produced By: Kornhaber Brown

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