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http://genome.gov/PRS

#polygenicriskscores #science

The first time you visit a new doctor, they’ll probably ask you about your family history - but it turns out that family history doesn’t tell you everything about the risks that can be hidden in your genes.

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Protein_BRCA1_PDB_1jm7.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Manhattan_Plot.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Dna-SNP.svg

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https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/paleo/fossils/amber.html
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Carnivorous plant:
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Dino feathers:
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Flea:
https://today.oregonstate.edu/archives/2015/sep/bacteria-ancient-flea-may-be-ancestor-black-death
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Salamander:
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Bat flies:
https://today.oregonstate.edu/archives/2012/feb/battle-vampires-20-million-years-ago
https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-4-229
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https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/205293.php?from=434638

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Sources:
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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/11250009009355684
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJeyOU4eSKw

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TaGRUMteWI

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Sources:
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1908639
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Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Protein_CFTR_PDB_1xmi.png

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When you think "sand dunes" you probably wouldn't think to look up in the northern reaches of Canada, but there lies one of earth's most unique habitats.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:

Sources:
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https://wildlife-species.canada.ca/species-risk-registry/species/speciesDetails_e.cfm?sid=634


Thumbnail Credit: DSyl

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Sand_Dunes_at_Lake_Athabasca.jpg

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------
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https://tinyurl.com/y67wlug5
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We owe a lot to our moon. Beautiful moonlit walks, higher tides, and regular seasons - all are made possible by our little rocky friend. But what would happen if we picked up a second moon?

Thanks to Dr. Neil Comins at the University of Maine for his orbital mechanics expertise and help with this episode!

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
Correspondence with Dr. Neil Comins
https://us.macmillan.com/books/9780312673352
https://www.universetoday.com/92148/what-if-the-earth-had-two-moons/
http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/our-solar-system/37-our-solar-system/the-moon/the-moon-and-the-earth/38-what-would-happen-if-earth-had-more-than-one-moon-intermediate
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https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/image_card_4x3_ratio/public/thumbnails/image/iss055e012690.jpg
https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/nasa-captures-epic-earth-image

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-------
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https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/poison-ivy-vector-illustration-educational-dangerous-urushoil-plant-scheme-gm1170652744-324017410
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https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/poison-oak-gm91769661-9218070
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/poison-ivy-gm471271885-14160784

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Sources:

New Eggs
https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/2/93
https://www.britannica.com/science/ovum

Menstrual Cycles
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41746-019-0152-7
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/menstrual-cycle/art-20047186
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/menstrual-cycle/art-20047186

Pregnancy During Periods
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469003/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC27529/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0015028216445966
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327786/ #ch5.s4
https://americanpregnancy.org/es/getting-pregnant/can-get-pregnant-period/

Not the Fastest Sperm
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16272225
https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article-abstract/6/9/1186/616038
https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282 (99)00095-3/fulltext
https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article/12/4/363/2182337
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mrd.21234
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10231058

Fertilization Misconceptions
v
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18448
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-physiol-020911-153339
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1471-2164-15-293
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27875265
https://www.quantamagazine.org/choosy-eggs-may-pick-sperm-for-their-genes-defying-mendels-law-20171115/
http://discovermagazine.com/1992/jun/theaggressiveegg55
https://aeon.co/essays/the-idea-that-sperm-race-to-the-egg-is-just-another-macho-myth
http://hihg.med.miami.edu/code/http/modules/education/Design/Print.asp?CourseNum=1& ;amp;LessonNum=5

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Sources:
https://kb.iu.edu/d/ackw
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367555/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843897/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10845078
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/new-estimate-boosts-the-human-brain-s-memory-capacity-10-fold/
https://elifesciences.org/articles/10778
https://aiimpacts.org/scale-of-the-human-brain/

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----------
Sources:
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/what-is-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/genetics/genes-and-cancer/oncogenes-tumor-suppressor-genes.html
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03600883
https://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/JCO.2019.37.15_suppl.3003
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824632/
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/KRAS #normalfunction
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1694-1
https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/phase-i-clinical-trial
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/kimmel_cancer_center/centers/melanoma/research/anti_pd_1.html
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/friendships/art-20044860
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100337
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.10.024
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeAiUBM18Cs
https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2019-10/cp-ari102419.php

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----------
Sources:
http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7468.html
http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74149.html
http://www.derm.city/single-post/2017/02/22/NOT-RECLUSE %E2%80%94New-mnemonic-to-prevent-misdiagnosis-of-skin-conditions-as-spider-bites
http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pcreclusespiders.htm
https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef631
https://entomologytoday.org/2018/01/29/brown-recluse-pest-management-tips-for-the-spider-thats-not-as-common-as-you-think/brown-recluse-range-map/
https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6sj701ns
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/aa01/91bdba804301026aba6f1888e4f054883f67.pdf
https://reference.medscape.com/slideshow/venomous-spiders-31606
https://spiders.ucr.edu/necrotic.html
https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/the-bite-of-the-brown-recluse
https://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644 (02)25977-6/fulltext
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ento.53.103106.093503
https://www.asbmb.org/asbmbtoday/201509/JournalNews/JBCRecluse/
https://www.derm.theclinics.com/article/S0733-8635 (18)30499-6/abstract
https://www.livescience.com/39996-brown-recluse-spiders.html
https://www.mdedge.com/clinicianreviews/article/71993/dermatology/bite-brown-recluse-spider/page/0/1
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/311615.php
https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4514
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537045/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071166/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086189/
https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/02/16/515576450/is-that-a-brown-recluse-spider-bite-or-skin-cancer
https://www.oregon.gov/oda/programs/ippm/pages/oregonspiders.aspx
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215121051.htm
----------
Images:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/23660854 @N07/2257278948
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Redback_spider_(5648356782).jpg

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53Jb7Y6eUUU
Why Do Cat Eyes Glow in the Dark?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xQQixUidPY
Why Can't My Cat Roar?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_yxZFjqQUg
Why Can't My Cat See a Treat in Front of Her Face?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBulWBs_xBg
Why Is Your Cat So Disgusted With You?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drpWDbT37Mk
Why Do Cats Like Catnip?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vH-lU7V9e8
Why Do Cats Knead?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7WNdMwM_oFQ
Why Do Cats Love Boxes?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bbbxd4Tm0F4


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Have you ever been driving down the highway and start to notice that you're feeling really relaxed, even sleepy? It turns out there are number of aspects of driving that can potentially conspire to lull our bodies into a potentially dangerous state of drowsiness.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
https://www.rospa.com/road-safety/advice/drivers/fatigue/road-accidents/
https://www.phillyvoice.com/infrequently-asked-questions-why-do-we-fall-asleep-so-easily-during-car-rides/
http://storeycountywindfarms.org/ref3_Impact_Sound_Pressure.pdf
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/026309238500400103
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/026309238800700303
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1987-17371-001
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123835 #sec013
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1307884?dopt=Abstract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139772?dopt=Abstract
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00140139.2018.1482373?journalCode=terg20
https://www.rmit.edu.au/news/all-news/2018/jul/vibrations-cars-drivers-sleepy

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Sources:
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5444/61378776ee3bff6653d1be1c735d927350f2.pdf
https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/44/1/125.full-text.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077770/ #R
http://hdr.undp.org/en/2018-update
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11023146
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1984393/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11705562
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jmv.23305
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007 %2Fs001250100617.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478578/ #B3
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130545
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4300932
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14984451
https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4177-z
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-011-2305-3
https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/1/151.short
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168822702001985
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353017
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-017-4492-z
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X17307053
https://www.sciencealert.com/this-vaccine-could-prevent-many-cases-of-type-1-diabetes
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007 %2Fs00125-017-4410-4
------
Images:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/little-girl-with-type-i-diabetes-gm485446207-38666704
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mature-diabetic-patient-taking-a-blood-test-gm865903474-143856411
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/insulin-inject-needle-isolated-on-white-background-and-copyspace-gm1174607589-326745230
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/dna-helix-in-close-up-htvthnpgzjbex8llw
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Coxsackie_B4_virus.JPG
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/close-up-hands-of-scientist-holding-white-laboratory-rat-when-discussing-research-details-with-colleague-smwrab-1qjhhe202w
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/babys-feet-in-the-toes-bhd_2mahgjd1uthhj
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/mother-and-baby-visiting-doctors-office-qzer5ig
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/diaper-with-hand-written-word-on-blue-background-gm1078594872-288978808
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/close-up-shot-of-scientists-hand-in-rubber-gloves-holding-white-laboratory-rat-other-scientist-looking-at-it-rm7itswkmjhhdz67n
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/medical-vials-manufacturing-line-at-pharmaceutical-factory-quality-control-of-pharmaceutical-vials-drugs-automated-production-line-ampoules-on-pharmaceutical-manufacturing-line-at-pharmacy-factory-hev77ymxzj2kfnwwe
"